Bricks are in the construction of walls and pavements. They are the oldest masonry materials that still exist. Archeologists discovered the first bricks in various parts of the Middle East and Asia. They were used in early societies such as the Roman Empire and the Ancient Chinese culture. The first bricks were made of clay soil around 7000BC (Bernotas, 2013). However, the first bricks were vulnerable to harsh weather conditions because they were sun-dried. The creation of bricks advanced after the discovery of firing kilns. The kiln was used to fire the molded bricks in order to make them hard and durable. After the new discovery, brick making would rapidly develop into a major sector of the building and construction industry. Throughout history, bricks have been used in the construction of walls, pavements, and decorations (Brick Industry Association, 2006).
Different societies around the to construct some of the spectacular buildings and structures around the world. Taos Pueblo is one of the brick structures that have existed for more than one millennium. The native people of Pueblo used clay bricks dried in the sun to . Khiva wall is another structure constructed using bricks. It was built about 2500 years ago as a collection of Muslim schools and mosques. It is located at Kyzylkum Desert in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The third example of a brick building is the Chan-Chan. The ancient building is situated in the Moche Valley of Peru. It was reserved for the upper class such as potters, woodworkers, and metallurgists. Shibam town in Yemen has several buildings constructed in the sixteenth century using clay bricks. Finally, Ait Benhaddou in Morocco is one of the walled cities in the Middle East region constructed using clay bricks (Touropia, 2014).
In the current construction industry, bricks still play a vital role. Clay bricks are used to construct decorative structures and pavements. This is opposed to the conventional time when it was the main building material for walls. Although they are traditional building materials, innovative ideas about brick manufacturing continue to emerge. In the modern industry, brick making is done (Darain, Rahman, Ahsan, Islam, & Yusuf, 2013). The molded bricks are dried in a kiln at a high temperature. Although some manufacturers use concrete as the raw material, clay or shale are still the best raw materials. The main advantage manufacturers have is that the clay is readily available.
The production of bricks in the past was labor intensive. The early people used primitive tools such as wooden boxes to produce them. The first bricks were made of clay and straws, which provided the strength to support building structures (Lopez-Arce, Garcia-Guinea, Gracia, & Obis, 2003). They were then dried in the sun for several days before they could be used in construction. Later, a manual kiln for heating was invented. Molded bricks were arranged in layers over a confined furnace. The wooden fire was then started in the furnace to heat the bricks for several days. These bricks were stronger and more durable than the sun-dried ones (Ali et al., 2014).
Because of its versatility and adaptability, manufacturers continue to produce and distribute bricks. The modern production of to machinery and technology. A digger excavates the soil and lays it on flat ground to remove impurities (Campbell & Pryce, 2003). The soil is molded into bricks using molding machines. A dry clay machine reduces the soil into a powder, fills it into the molding machine and subjects it to high pressure. However, bricks can also be dried for about 14 days before they are subjected to a kiln fire (Ali et al., 2014).